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Morgan 4/4 is an automobile which has been produced by the Morgan Motor Company since 1936. It was Morgan's first car with four wheels, the "4-4" (later "4/4") designation indicating that the model has four wheels and four cylinders. Earlier Morgans had been three-wheelers, typically with V-twin engines. Apart from a break during World War II (and the period March 1951 to September 1955) the 4/4 has been in continuous production from its debut right up to the present day. Engine capacity has increased from the 1,122 cc Coventry Climax engine in 1936 to a 1.8-litre Ford engine in 2004, although it is currently back down to 1,595 cc.


The original open two-seater 4-4 was introduced in 1936 and ended up being the most popular of the three body options available. 663 were built by 1939 and 249 more from 1946 to 1950, representing 53% of the overall production.


For the first years the car had a 1,122 cc Coventry Climax engine with 34 bhp (25 kW; 34 PS), superseded from 1939 by a Standard Special 1,267 cc overhead valve engine with 38.8 bhp (29 kW; 39 PS). A four-speed Meadows gearbox was used until 1938, then a Moss gearbox.


The four-seat version was introduced in 1937 and 99 were built by 1939 and a further 140 from 1946 to 1950.


The Drophead Coupé was introduced in 1938 with 58 built by 1939 and another 106 from 1946 to 1950. This has a better folding roof and permanent window frames, along with certain other creature comforts.


The Series II, now the 4/4 rather than the 4-4, was introduced in 1955 with 386 built by October 1960. Although very similar in appearance to the old 4-4 it was virtually a new car with a chassis based on the one used in the Morgan Plus 4. The traditional independent front suspension using sliding pillars and coil springs was fitted with a rigid axle and semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. Disc wheels were fitted as standard items.


A side-valve 1,172 cc Ford 100E engine was used with a Ford three-speed gearbox. The engine produced 36 bhp.[2] Hydraulic brakes with 9 in (229 mm) drums were fitted. It was also available in 40 bhp (30 kW; 41 PS) 'Competition' form with Aquaplane head conversion, twin S.U. carburettors, and an improved gearshift linkage.


Inside there was a bench seat back and individual squabs covered in PVC, with leather as an option, and rubber floor covering. A heater was available as an option as was a rev counter and more surprisingly, direction indicators.[2]


In 1956 The Motor magazine tested a Series II and recorded a top speed of 75.3 mph (121.2 km/h), acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 26.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 35.1 miles per imperial gallon (8.0 L/100 km; 29.2 mpg‑US). The test car cost £713 including taxes.[2]


The short-lived Series III was introduced in October 1960 and 58 were built by November 1961 when the Series IV arrived. The chassis was essentially the same as that used on the Series II but the track was increased by 2 inches (50 mm). Hydraulic shock absorbers replaced the old Hartford friction type.


A 39 bhp (29 kW; 40 PS) overhead valve 997 cc Ford Anglia 105E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used.


The Series IV introduced October 1961 with 114 built by March 1963 had a 62 bhp, 1340 cc, Ford Classic 109E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox. Front 11 in (279 mm) disc brakes were now fitted.


The Motor magazine tested a Series IV in 1962 and found it had a top speed of 80.3 mph (129.2 km/h), acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 18.6 seconds and a touring fuel consumption of 32.0 miles per imperial gallon (8.8 L/100 km; 26.6 mpg‑US). The test car cost £729 including taxes on the home market.[3]


The Series V was introduced in February 1963 with 639 built by March 1968.


A 65 bhp, 1498 cc, Ford Cortina 116E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used.


The car was further updated in 1968 to become the 1600 with two- and four-seat open bodies available.


Ford Kent Crossflow engine[edit]


The 4/4 1600 was introduced in February 1968 fitted with a variety of Ford 1599 cc Kent engines of type 2737E (70 bhp), type 2737GT (95.5 bhp) and type 2265E (95.5 bhp) from 1971 and a Ford four-speed gearbox.


A total of 3513 were built by March 1982.


Fiat Twin-Cam engine[edit]

Introduced in November 1981 was a 98 bhp (73 kW; 99 PS) Fiat 1584 cc twin-cam engine and five-speed Fiat gearbox.


96 were built by November 1985.


Ford CVH engine[edit]

Introduced in March 1982 with a Ford 1597 cc CVH engine and Ford four-speed gearbox until 1984, then a Ford five-speed gearbox from Ford Sierra. From 1986 steering was changed from the original cam and peg to a Gemmer recirculating ball system.


1652 were built by November 1991.


Ford CVH EFI engine[edit]

From November 1991 a 100 bhp (75 kW; 101 PS) Ford 1597 cc CVH engine with electronic fuel injection was used. 187 were built by January 1993, when the 1800 version was introduced.



Starting in April 1993 the Morgan 4/4 used a 114 bhp (85 kW; 116 PS) Ford 1,796 cc 16-valve Zetec R engine.



In 2003 Morgan launched a new entry level model named the Runabout based on the 4/4. It was available in three standard colours only with a standard no-option specification. The Runabout could be recognised by the reduced number of bonnet louvres.


Ford Duratec engine[edit]

From 2006 to 2009 the 4/4 sported a 125 bhp (93 kW; 127 PS) Ford Duratec 1,798 cc 16-valve all-alloy engine. On these models the exhaust is on the right side. In January 2006 a "70th Anniversary Special edition" was presented, celebrating 70 years having passed since the introduction of the 4/4.[4] This received black paint and special wheels, similar to those used on the original "flat-rad" 4-4 Morgan. 142 were planned to be made. In spite of seventy years of production, the accumulated figure had not yet reached 10,000 in 2006.[4]


From 2009 to the present (2013) the Ford Sigma engine used is 1,595 cc and produces 110 bhp (82 kW), enough for a 185 km/h (115 mph) top speed. The engine drives the rear wheels via a Mazda-made five-speed manual gearbox.[5] The bonnet has fewer bonnet louvres, as for the previous "Runabout" entry-level version.

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